SELinux, or Security-Enhanced Linux as its known by the guy who invented it, is a Linux feature that provides an additional level of security by setting rules for which processes can access which files, directories, ports, etc.
Display and Modify SELinux Modes:
You can use /etc/sysconfig/selinux to change the default SELinux mode at boot, and the setenforce command can be used to change the default level on the fly. Getenforce can be used to determine the current SELinux mode.
Display SELinux Contexts:
Under SELinux, every file, process, directory, or port is assigned a special security label called a context.
To view the contexts assigned to a file or directory use the '-Z' option. Coupled with and 'ls" or a 'ps" this is a formidable command.
To view a list of all possible assigned contexts use semanage.
# semanage fcontext -l
Modify SELinux Contexts:
For example, lets create two test files in /tmp called testfile1 and testfile2, and then lets check their contexts.
# ls -lZ test*
-rw-r–r–. root root unconfined_u:object_r:user_tmp_t:s0 testfile1
-rw-r–r–. root root unconfined_u:object_r:user_tmp_t:s0 testfile2
Now compare this to the default context assigned to apache content
# ls -ldZ /var/www/html
drwxr-xr-x. root root system_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 /var/www/html
So lets say that I want to move testfile1 to /var/www/html and make it accessable via a webbrowser; in order to do this I must assign the correct context to the file using the restorecon command.
# restorecon -Rv /var/www/html
The command above restores or even better, allows the testfiles to inherit the contexts assigned to the parent directory, which in this case is /var/www/html/
Add SELinux Contexts:
Now lets say that you need to add a directory and apply a context directly to that directory, instead of allowing a context to be inheritted. For example, lets say that I need to setup an apache virtual server under /virtual_server2, so lets first create the directory and a simple index.html
# mkdir /virtual_server2
# vi /virtual_server2/index.html
# ls -Zd /virtual_server2
drwxr-xr-x. root root unconfined_u:object_r:default_t:s0 /virtual_server2
# ls -Zd /virtual_server2/index.html
-rw-r–r–. root root unconfined_u:object_r:default_t:s0 /virtual_server2/index.html
Now we need to set and apply the correct http content context to /virtual_server2 and its contents (say that 5 times fast)
# semanage fcontext -a -f "" -t httpd_sys_content_t '/virtual_server2(/.*)?'
# restorecon -RFvvv /virtual_server2/
restorecon reset /virtual_server2 context unconfined_u:object_r:default_t:s0->system_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0
restorecon reset /virtual_server2/index.html context unconfined_u:object_r:default_t:s0->system_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0
Now that our context is correct apache should have no issue serving up our new content (once configured on the apache side)
# ls -Zd /virtual_server2/
drwxr-xr-x. root root system_u:object_r:httpd_sys_content_t:s0 /virtual_server2/